While it is true that people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes both have higher than normal blood sugar levels, the cause and development of the two types of diabetes are different.
In Canada there are approximately 300,000 people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. This is about 10% of all people diagnosed with both types of diabetes in Canada. Type 1 diabetes usually appears between early childhood and adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin the body’s cells cannot absorb glucose which is required to produce energy. Deprived of energy, the body may also begin to burn its own fat as a substitute, leading to the build-up of harmful chemicals in the blood, known as ketones.
Type 2 diabetes can develop at any age but usually appears in adulthood. However, we are seeing an increase in children being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body loses its ability to use insulin. This is called insulin resistance. Over time the pancreas may make less and less insulin.
Common differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes:
|Type 1 diabetes||Type 2 diabetes|
|Most often diagnosed in childhood or adolescence||Usually diagnosed in adults over 40|
|Not associated with excess body weight||Often associated with excess body weight|
|Always treated with insulin||Initially treated with medication tablets, and injectable medications, such as insulin, later. In some instances, insulin may be prescribed at diagnosis.|
|It cannot be prevented||For some people, it can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle|
Differences in symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes:
The first symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear when the blood sugar gets too high. Type 1 diabetes symptoms often arise quickly and may include intense thirst, hunger, fatigue, frequent urination, blurred vision and slow healing cuts.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes do not start as suddenly as symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Symptoms many not show up for many years meaning the disease may have been hurting the body before a person realizes it. When symptoms do appear, they are often the same as the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and can also include frequent infections and numbness or tingling in the hands or feet.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes:
People with type 1 diabetes always inject insulin using an insulin pen, syringe or insulin pump. When taken in conjunction with a healthy diet, an exercise program and regular blood glucose monitoring, people with type 1 diabetes can reach their diabetes management goals and live well.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes also begins with proper nutrition, exercise and blood glucose monitoring, but usually starts with oral medication, but in some instances may include insulin. Over time, the person with type 2 diabetes may use more than one oral medication and may also start taking insulin or other injectable medications.